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GP: Overview of Transport & Environmentally Sustainable Transport, Public Transport Company "GRAS" - Bosnia & Herzegovina

1. Introduction - Public Transport Company "GRAS"

The public transport company "GRAS" has been transporting passengers since 1885, when the first horse-pulled tram in Europe had provoked amazement and doubtness of people of Sarajevo. Ten years later first electrical tram in Austro-Hungarian monarchy was introduced. Today this company has four forms of mass passenger transportation: tram, trolley bus, bus and mini-bus transportation. Besides these four forms of transportation, GRAS also owns an angled elevator and devastated cable railway to nearby mountain Trebevic. The above listed forms of transportation function through total of 387 transportation units. The unfortunate war circumstances in Bosnia and Herzegovina have led to reduction of transportation volume. Before the war 487 transportation units were serving the above mentioned four forms of transportation; during the war most of the transportation units were destroyed.

Currently, the tram transportation includes seven transportation lines. The statistical data from 2002 shows that tram transportation counted for 21.7 % of the total 14,770,491 km, which GRAS passed during this year. At the same time the tram form of transportation transported 47.7 % of the total of 174,000,000 passenger in 2002.

The bus form of transportation includes 49 lines, which in 2002 served 29.6 % of the total number of transported passengers and 46 % of the total number of passed kilometers. The trolley-bus form of transportation includes 4 lines, which served 15.7 % of the total number of transported passengers and 15.3 % of the total number of passed kilometers.

In 2002, the minibus form of transportation included 32 lines, which served 7.1 % of the total number of transported passengers, and 16.9 % of the total number of passed kilometers. This form of transportation is conditioned by ground configuration. Since Sarajevo is located in a basin, connection of hill sides around the city is only possible by minibuses, which can navigate through very narrow streets.


2. Description of the environmental problem specially caused by traffic pollution in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina has become an independent country in 1992. From 1945 until its independence Bosnia and Herzegovina was a part of Yugoslavia, as one of six republics. At that time, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a center of heavy industry such as electrical power plants and steel plant, which at the same time represented the biggest air polluters. Due to this fact, the industrially most developed cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina were also mostly polluted cities. Due to war circumstances in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the air pollution issue has been ignored and even today, not enough attention is being paid to it. When talking about the air pollution, special attention needs to be paid to effects of motor vehicles on air pollution. Only the Mechanical Faculty in Sarajevo has done significant research on effects of motor vehicles on emission polluters in urban areas.


2.1 Environmental trends and conditions associated with transport sector (since last 10 years)

During the period 1992-1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina was a country in war. Due to this fact we cannot in our analysis only rely on the last 10 years and we need to take into consideration certain elements, which have existed over the period which is longer then 10 years.

In Federation of B&H (which covers 51 % of the entire territory of B&H) during 2002, the total number of registered vehicles was 449,441, and out of this number 358,378 vehicles or 79.74 % were older then 10 years. Since the first significant activities towards the introduction of EURO engines have been undertaken only since 1991, this means that almost 80 % of the entire Federation of B&H motor pool is significantly contributing to formation of emission polluters. Most of the Federation motor pool uses old engines based on outdated technologies of engine gas injections and without the use of catalysts. Only vehicles younger then 10 years meet some of the European policies on cleanness of exhaustion gases (EURO 1, EURO 2, and even EURO 3).

For a more detailed summary of the age structure of the Federation B&H motor pool in 2002, please refer to table 1 in the downloadable version of this document.

Due to lack of qualitative data on other urban areas, the research has been done only in the area of the city of Sarajevo. This data can be used as representational, since during the last quarter of the past century, Sarajevo represented one of the most polluted cities along with its well-known fogs. Just territory of Sarajevo alone has 100,000 vehicles, which represents 25 % of the entire motor pool of Federation of B&H.

Therefore we will only deal with the ecological situation in Sarajevo, since a detailed analysis of pollution causes was done only for Sarajevo. Narrowing the analysis down to territory of only one city and not the entire country does not represent a great problem since the analysis was done on the basis of available data, which is tracked down into more detail on the territory of Sarajevo only and similar data for other urban communities of Bosnia and Herzegovina does not exist. Plus, this analysis can represent a sample for how to approach this issue on wider territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

By comparing pre-war and post-war air pollution data, one notes that concentration of SO2 and smoke in the city of Sarajevo had much greater value up to 1992 (the beginning of war), and that its value has significantly reduced after 1995. Reason for this reduction lies in fact that country's industry has been destroyed during the war, and that today the largest source of pollution are motor vehicles and heating systems for buildings and other public spaces.

In order to be able to address the air pollution of urban areas caused by emission of exhaust gases by motor vehicles it is necessary to have large number of qualitative data, which enables creation of qualitative picture of the real condition. Some of these elements are: motor pool structure, spent volume of fuel, mileage, average speed of driving, climate conditions and similar.

The number of registered vehicles has dramatically increased after the war and currently there are 92,062 registered vehicles (data from 2002). In the last few years, the average increase of number of vehicles was 2.84 %, which is in trend with the average increase of number of vehicles in the world from 2.5 ÷ 3 %. If we take into consideration the fact that there is quite a few international organizations and Embassies present in Sarajevo, the total number of vehicles in the city of Sarajevo is around 100,000. In the city that is located in a basin and surrounded by mountains and has 350,000 citizens and does not have resolved local detours, this number of vehicles represent a huge cause of air pollution.

In 2002, the total of 112,180 tons of fuel was used in Sarajevo. Out of this number, 66,443 tones was diesel fuel (59 %), 31,189 were unleaded fuel (28 %) and 14,548 tones was led fuel (13 %).

All this data was used as entering parameters, which along with conducted measurements and calculations have led to the following results, which have been presented in tables and graphics .

According to presented results it is obvious that the biggest responsibility for CO emission lies within motor vehicles. At the same time almost 1/3 of the mentioned emission goes to the cold start regime. These same vehicles are also responsible for majority of NMVOC emission (non-methane organic jedinjenje).

Even though participation of freight vehicles and buses in the total number of motor vehicle is not large (almost 6 %), these vehicles are producing significant emission of NOX and particles. This is to a certain extent understandable since these are vehicles with diesel engines of great power. However, since large number of small passenger motor vehicles is equipped with diesel engines, one can conclude that small passenger motor vehicles are to be blamed for largest emission of NOX and particles.

On the other hand, emission of CO2 is caused by total fuel consumption and one cannot have a direct impact on it. Small passenger motor vehicles are the most responsible for emission of CO2, but also freight vehicles and buses due to higher participation in passed mileage. And even though they represent a small percentage in the total number of vehicles, they significantly contribute to emission of CO2.

By analyzing the results, we can conclude that small passenger motor vehicles are the most responsible for forming emission of polluters in Sarajevo Canton. However, due to geographical specifics of the area the same attention should be paid to efforts to reduce emission on polluters - small passenger vehicles (cars), freight motor vehicles and public transportation vehicles.

An interesting fact is that the calculation of emission of exhaust gases and continuous measurement of CO2, which has been carried out during the period 04.20.2003. ÷ 06.20.2003. has led to almost identical results, which further proves the correctness of performed calculations.

2.2 Driving forces/causes of such environmental problems in transport sector

If we limit ourselves to area of the city of Sarajevo, where the research of this type has been only done, we could say that a big problem in ecological sense represents the average age of vehicles, which are used in the city. According to available data, the total of 60,000 vehicles in Sarajevo are older then 10 years. In 2002, the average age of a vehicle was 13.02 years.

A detailed summary of the age structure of the motor pool in Sarajevo in 2003 is given in table 2 of the downloadable version of this report.

Such catastrophic motor pool situation was also partially caused by the post-war politics of the country, which enabled the citizens to import used vehicles without any age restrictions. Importing privileges for such vehicles led to importation of large number of very old vehicles from the EU countries, which were available at very low costs.

In such manner the motor pool, which was to a great extent destroyed during the war, was renewed with old vehicles, and not enough attention was being paid to quality of exhaust gases in these vehicles. The motor pool of freight vehicles and buses was renewed in the same manner, and emission of exhaust gases for such vehicles is even more problematic.

As it was stated earlier, the average vehicle age in Federation of B&H is 13.02 years. According to certain research done for Sarajevo, rejuvenation of the motor pool would conditionally improve the ecological situation. In order to reduce emission of harmful polluters in the city, the average age of the motor pool has to be reduced to 9.43 years. This could be possible under the condition that the total of 18,000 vehicles older then 15 years was substituted with vehicles whose engines are meeting the EURO 1, EURO 2 and EURO 3 regulations.

2.3 Existing policy initiatives/measures at different level (Govt., NGOs, etc.)

The current country policy is limiting the importation of vehicles to vehicles younger then 7 years, freight vehicles and buses younger then 10 years. However, there was an omission made in this policy as well, since in most municipalities citizens are paying 10 % tax on importation of used vehicles, and 20 % tax for buying new vehicles. This is not logical since under this policy citizens are encouraged to buy old vehicles, which even further worsens the ecological situation. If the tax matter were turned around, more buyers would decide to buy new vehicles, which would contribute to rejuvenation of the motor pool and improvement of the ecological situation in the country.

Introduction of PDV (added value tax) is currently in a process, which is most likely at the same tax rate going to bring some order into tax policies. The PDV is going into force at the beginning of next year. It will probably balance out the above-mentioned tax relations and will directly have an effect on improvement of the ecological situation in the city and country.

Regardless of this limitation on imported vehicles age, there is still missing regulation, which would prevent citizens from importing vehicles whole emission of exhaust gases doe’s not meet European standards. Introduction of stricter control of emission of exhaust gases at importation of vehicles into the country would enable partial improvement of the ecological situation.

In terms of non-government organizations, only BIHAMK and the Mechanical Faculty in Sarajevo are undertaking more significant activities and carrying out continuous research on emission of exhaust gases in the city of Sarajevo.

BIHAMK as a non-government organization is undertaking certain activities such as periodical free vehicles checkup, normally before the winter and summer holidays. All these activities certainly do lead to relative improvement of the motor pool condition. It still represents a minor improvement since it applies only to a small and random vehicles specimen included in such actions.

The Mechanical Faculty in Sarajevo is the only one conducting the research on volume of exhaust gases caused by their emission from vehicles. Dynamics of improvement of the ecological situation in which we live depends on readiness of the government to rely on results of this research and to include the recommendations for ecological future into law regulation.

2.4 Policy/knowledge/information gap in relation to environment and the transport sector

It is quite apparent that there are significant problems in the area of environment protection in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The current country politics are trying to reconcile the economic situation of the country with the legal regulations, which would further enable improvement of the ecological situation, especially in urban communities.

It is necessary to work in more directions, which could help improve the ecological situation in urban areas. These directions are:

- regulative measurements and control measurers on emission polluters
- increasing efficiency in using conventional fuels,
- introduction of alternative fuels in transportation,
- introduction of alternative "cleaner" form of transportation, especially for transport of passengers in urban communities,
- management of transportation and logistics requests,
- integration policies and international coordination

Utilization of new alternative fuels in public transportation vehicles and small passenger motor vehicles is only possible by ensuring existence of the necessary infrastructure.

The existing knowledge can lead to certain results only if significant financial assets are invested in this area. However, in the country such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has really poor economy it is very difficult to find financial assets, which would be invested into ecologically conscious approach to transportation problems. The fortunate circumstance is the fact that joining of our country to EU is conditioned by B&H meeting the satisfactory ecological norms.

Only through full engagement of all structures is possible to get closer to desired results in control and reduction of emission of polluters in urban communities.


3. Description of the present situation of transport infrastructure in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The transport infrastructure of Bosnia and Herzegovina can be divided into road, railway, air and water transportation. Underdevelopment represents a common characteristic for all these forms of transportation. Already poorly developed network of transport infrastructure in Bosnia and Herzegovina was even more damaged during the past war.

3.1 Present situation of traffic action

The road infrastructure is divided into state, regional and local roads. Over 2,000 km of state roads were partially or fully destroyed during the war. Currently Bosnia and Herzegovina has the total of 3,788 km of state roads. Out of this number 1,764 km of state roads are located with Republic Srpska and 2,024 km with Federation. The network of regional roads contains 2,842 km, 2,157 km in Republic Srpska and 2,724 km in Federation.

8,630 km of roads in B&H makes the network of state and regional roads, while the local roads contain approximately 14,000 km-the total road network in B&H contains 22,600 km of roads. Bosnian and Herzegovina has 0.43 km of road per square area kilometer, which is at the level of countries in the region, but much lower then for example in Germany which has almost 2 km of road per square area kilometer.

The railway infrastructure of B&H has a long history. The first railway started its operation back in 1872, and in 1897 the railway route Bosanski Brod-Zenica was opened, which represented the first line with narrow gauge track under the Austro-Hungarian Empire. 1,611 km of narrow gauge lines was built until 1918. Starting in 1946 these narrow gauge lines were gradually replaced with the standard gauges (1435 mm). The total of 855 km of standard gauge track has been built in B&H since 1978, and total of 87 km of double gauge track, and all narrow gauge tracks had been closed since then. During the war, large portion of railway infrastructure has been destroyed. The total of 14 railway bridges have been destroyed, which led to total interception between B&H and Croatian railways. Reconstruction of most bridges and partial reconstruction of accompanying infrastructures has enabled development of railway traffic between B&H and the rest of the Europe. However, the transportation volume is significantly lower then before the war.

Air transport of B&H before the war was mainly tied to Sarajevo airport as the most important and only one that had the necessary infrastructure and equipment for passenger transportation. The remaining three airports in Mostar, Tuzla and Banja Luka have been military airports. Mostar airport at the same time had small volume of passenger transportation, mostly charter flights for pilgrims to Medjugorje. Today these airports exist on an international air market.

Water transportation in B&H did not have great participation in the overall transport since in 1990 only two rivers were navigable (Sava river 333 km, Neretva river 4 km). 24 km along B&H coast is also opened for water transport. However, there isn't significant participation in merchandise transport since Neum (the only place in B&H that is on the coast) does not even have a port for passenger transportation.

Improvement of existing infrastructure by certain forms of transportation in B&H is anticipated in Master transport plan (developed in 2001), in whose development participated JICA together with official institution of B&H, Ministry of Civil Affairs and Communication and authorized entity Ministries for Transport and Communications. This Master plan contains detailed proposals for improvement of transport network in B&H by individual forms of transport, along with all accompanying elements.

3.2 Difficulties/challenges in promoting environmental-friendly transportation/ infrastructures

Currently, Bosnia and Herzegovina is facing great difficulties in terms of poor infrastructure whose reconstruction is too slow and in terms of poor age structure of the existing motor pool.

Rejuvenation of the motor pool is a long-term process that cannot happen in short period of time. This represent a complex issue, which depends on many factors, such as legal regulation, financial power of citizens on which at this time is very hard to have any positive influence.

The legal regulation needs to ensure utilization of high quality conventional fuels. Petroleum on world market can be found as petroleum bearing and as paraffin. Petroleum bearing petroleum is richer in gas and bensol. It is most characteristic for the Western market and suitable for engines that meet EURO 3 norms.

Paraffin petroleum is rich in sulphur, phosphorus and tar, so called erni additives. When this kind of petroleum is used in engines with high pressure of fuel injections, petroleum pitch gets created and it sticks to fuel filters, which lead to poor engine performance. Utilization of this kind of petroleum shortness duration of oil in engine by 50 %, since the oil in engine is broken down due to existence of high levels of humidity and sulphur, which causes creation of sulphuric acid (H2SO4). This kind of petroleum contributes to increased emission of NOX and particles. Utilization of this kind of petroleum is specific to territories of former Soviet Union and countries of former Yugoslavia with an exception of Slovenia.

The current legal regulation in B&H is allowing for conventional fuels to have higher percentage of ernih additives then those fuels that meet the newest EURO 3 norms. Many owners of new vehicles which have new engines build according to EURO standards very often have problems with fuel they use in their vehicles because the level of harmful particles in this kind of fuel is much higher then allowed for these engines.

There is a trend in the world to introduce compressed natural gas as the most important alternative fuel, which enables reaching of significantly lower emission of polluter, primarily NOX and particles. The legal regulation should also ensure certain benefits for vehicles owner who are purchasing vehicles, which use alternative "cleaner" fuels. However in order to establish sustainable system of ecological vehicles utilization it is necessary to invest significant financial assets into the necessary infrastructure.


4. Long/Short-term Strategies on urban environment and transportation

Typical example of activities which are undertaken with a final goal of improving the ecological situation in the country is in the city of Sarajevo, in which authorities are undertaking even though slowly certain actions on improving the ecological situation. Such activities depend on size of invested financial assets and it is well know that finding financial assets for this area in post-war situation is extremely difficult. However, there are certain activities that are being undertaken and they are presented further down in the text.

4.1 Overall strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The trend of introducing cleaner forms of transport in pubic transportation of passengers is present in urban communities. Those urban communities are trying to introduce into public transportation of passengers vehicles, which use compressed natural gas. This requires large investments and our country is able to undertake such initiatives with the help of developed countries. Certain cooperation with EU countries has been established on this issue, and JICA has also so far invested significant financial assets in the area of transportation and transportation infrastructure.

In the city of Sarajevo, which as it was already said has the greatest problem on emission of polluters, ecological forms of transportation: trams and trolleybuses already exist. The development strategy of GRAS anticipates further development of tramlines and transformation of trams system into lakosinski system, which would enable faster and safer transportation of passengers in the city, as well as better connectivity with suburban areas. Expansion of trolleybus network is in process in order to reach the prewar length of the network. There are also plans to expand this network to hillsides of the city, where the transportation due to ground configuration is currently being done with buses and minibuses.

There is also a plan to introduce buses, which would use compressed natural gas, which also contribute to improvement of the ecological situation in Sarajevo.

The long-term strategy in order to speed up transportation of passengers to the city center is to connect suburban areas with the center of the city by railway network, which would be connected to the tram network line. This would contribute to reduction of the number of personal vehicles that are entering the city center from suburban areas.

4.2 How KJKP "GRAS" is contributing towards achieving/meeting the overall national strategy

Public transport company "GRAS" is preparing for adjustment of its motor pool to the European standards. Most of its development plans are based on utilization of ecologically clean vehicles, trams and trolleybuses. There are also plans to change the existing motor pool of buses and minibuses with vehicles, which will meet the world standards on emission of harmful polluters in accordance with the EURO 3 and EURO 4 norms. It is anticipated that expansion of tram and trolleybus network lines in near future will lead to reduction of bus utilization in public transportation, which would lead to reduction of emission of harmful polluters.

The long-term plan of connecting suburban areas with the center of the city by railway network, and achieving more efficient transportation of citizens from suburban areas to the city center would contribute to improvement of the ecological situation of the city since it would most likely reduce the number of people who are using existing transportation (vehicles and buses), which are significantly polluting our environment.

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