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GP: Yerevan Sustainable Urban Transport - Armenia - Regional PDF Print E-mail

Acknowledgement

The report was written by Martiros Tsarukyan, Senior Expert, Ministry of Nature Protecion of the Republic of Armenia, supported by Ian Skinner, Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) and Rie Tsutsumi, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Regional Office for Europe, and financially supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management.

Objective

The objective of this study is to determine the problems of sustainable urban transport in the city of Yerevan and to draw the attention of competent authorities to the need of solution of these problems. The results of the study will be presented during the seminar on “Sustainable Urban Transport and Land Use Planning” which will be held from October 18-20, in Tbilisi. The problems determined in the process of the study can be taken into account during development of strategies and action plans.

Introduction

The problem of sustainable urban transport is one of the most complex environmental, health and transport issues in the world and it is relevant for all the big cities. Yerevan is not an exception. On the one hand the importance of the problem is due to the over norm air pollution and on the other hand it is conditioned by the great share of the motor vehicles in that pollution.

The complexity of the problem particularly depends on the fact that it derives from different fields of economic activities, such as urban construction, road construction, transport, traffic organization, etc. Any policy and strategy developed and implemented in these fields must be in compliance with environmental and human health protection issues.

The policy of air protection is closely related to the transport policy. Urban air pollution from transport is the contiguous result of transport running. The transport has a significant role for the urban economy and prosperity of its population. Environmental problems are important, but they are only one of the policy aspects of urban transport, among economic, financial, social and other aspects. These different sides of the issue must be balanced during development of local or national policy.

Brief description of city

In 2005 , the population of the city of Yerevan was 1.1 million people, the territory was 227 km2 and the population density was 4859 people per km2. Yerevan occupies 0.76% of the territory of the Republic, but 34% of the population. In 2004, the net migration was away from Yerevan, as 2,100 people left the city, compared to 7,700 who left the country, as a whole – a decrease of 25% compared to 2000. The average income of the population in 2004 was 417,978 AMD (Armenian drams), which is approximately double that of 2000.

Yerevan is one of the most ancient cities in the Region. This year 2,788th anniversary of its foundation was celebrated. Yerevan had steep upsurge in the 20th century becoming from a provincial town a big cultural and industrial center. Yerevan is a compact city. It was founded in Ararat Valley, afterwards it expanded and included Kotayk and Eghvard foothill uplands. The absolute grades of the height above sea level oscillate between 850-1420m. The average height of the city above the sea level is 1,110m. On the whole the territory of the city has complex cut relief. Plane surfaces occupy 40% of the territory, sloped planes occupy 30% of the territory, the 20% of the territory has slightly sloped relief and 10% of the territory consists of inclined slopes. Yerevan is surrounded by mountains from 3 sides, which makes difficult natural ventilation, in this way becoming the reason of frequently observed surface temperature inversion during winter months, which in its turn leads to the accumulation of hazardous substances in the urban air. The rivers Hrazdan, Getar and Jrvedz cross the territory of the city of Yerevan. Besides the rivers, there are artificial reservoirs in the territory of the city, such as Yerevanyan Lich, Vardavari Lich and a number of small reservoirs. The general surface of the water territory of the city consists 141.9 hectares.


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